On the Origin of Species was first published to great controversy in 1859. With it Charles Darwin forever changed the way people thought about the natural world. In this seminal work of natural philosophy, he articulated his theory of natural selection, or survival of the fittest, that put him at the heart of a debate on evolution and the origins of mankind, the embers of which are still burning today. From the discoveries he made during his voyage on board H.M.S. Beagle, Darwin produced a scientific masterpiece.